Records say that Christopher Columbus was born in 1451 in Genoa, Republic of Genoa. He died in 1506 in Spain. Christopher Columbus is known as an Italian explorer and a navigator. He completed 4 voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Many documents show that he opened the way for European exploration and colonization of the Americas.
Christopher Columbus has been called the “discoverer” of the new world. Christopher Columbus completed his voyages under the sponsorship of Ferdinand 2nd and Isabella 1st, the Catholic Monarchs of Aragon, Castile, and Leon in Spain. He was awarded the title ‘Admiral of the Ocean Sea’ in April 1492.
People do many searches on Christopher Columbus like what was he searching for, for what he has known for, where did he go, etc. Here we are trying to give all answers to your questions, which you are looking for about Christopher Columbus.
About the life of Christopher Columbus
It has been said that he was a converted Jew and was born in Spain, Portugal. He was the eldest son of Domenico Colombo, a wool merchant. His mother’s name is Susanna Fontanarossa. When he was in his teenage, he got a job on a merchant ship. Columbus remained at sea until 1476. Pirates attacked his ship, and his boat sank. Columbus floated to shore on a scrap of wood and made his way to Lisbon after that. Where he studied mathematics, astronomy, cartography, and navigation. In 1479 he met with Felipa Perestrello e Moniz and married her. Christopher Columbus had a son; his name was Diego. He was born in 1480. In 1482 and 1485 Christopher Columbus traded along the Guinea and Gold coasts of tropical West Africa and made one voyage to the Portuguese fortress of Elmina, Ghana there.
What was Christopher Columbus looking for?
Christopher Columbus was sailed in search of a route to China and India. Because he wanted to bring back spices and gold from here to America, which were highly sought in Europe. His sponsors Ferdinand 2nd and Isabella 1st hoped that his success would bring them greater status and profit. Cristopher Columbus also hoped that this beginning will give prosperity to his family. Columbus was at the height of his popularity after the voyages.
Where did Christopher Columbus go?
As documents said, Christopher Columbus did 4 transatlantic voyages. They were as 1492-93, 1493-96, 1498-1500, and last was 1502-1504. He traveled primarily on the route of the Caribbean, including the Bahamas, Cuba, Santo Domingo, and Jamaica. At every place the first thing which he inquired was gold.
Christopher Columbus’s first voyage (1492-1493)
Columbus wanted to become famous and fortunate. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella also wanted the same. So, he presents his plan of the voyage in front of them, and ask them for sponsorship for that. Columbus made the contract with the Spanish rulers that he could keep 10 percent of whatever riches he found. Along with a noble title for him and governorship of any lands which he encounters.
On August 3, 1492, he started his first voyage from Spain. Christopher Columbus starts his sail with 3 ships, the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria. In starting, many months Columbus sailed from Island to Island in search of precious stone, pearls, gold, silver, spices, and many other things. He crossed the Atlantic and on October 12, he made landfall in Bahama Island. The admiral was convinced that he had reached China and Japan. After that, he explored Cuba and Hispaniola. And there he built a stockade on Hispaniola at the new city La Navidad. After that, he starts his return trip on January 16, 1493, to Spain along with his ship. In that, he carried gold, spices, and captives. These cargos were enough to convince King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to sponsor his 2nd expedition.
Second Voyage of Columbus (1493- 1496)
After six months later in September 1493, he returned to the Americas. In 1493 he led 17 ships out from Cadiz. With the company of 1300 salaried men and 200 private investors. Then he reached Hispaniola, and he found that Taino natives had destroyed the stockade at La Navidad. Because of this, a pattern began of indigenous resistance and European retaliation that ended in the conquest of Hispaniola. Then he departed for Spain on March 10, 1496. There he left his brother Bartholomew and son Diego in charge of Hispaniola. At this time Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Tordesillas on June 7, 1994. This treaty divided the Western Hemisphere between them. Columbus requested Ferdinand and Isabella for a 3rd voyage. Queen Isabella believed in Columbus so much. She believed that any people Columbus discovered were Spanish subjects. And they could not be enslaved. But that time Spain was at war with France and could finance only 6 ships to go with him.
Third voyage of Cristopher Columbus (1498- 1500)
Christopher Columbus started sailing back for Hispaniola on May 30, 1498. Columbus explored on this expedition Trinidad, The Gulf of Praia, Venezuela, and the mouth of the Grande River. At this time Columbus realized that he had encountered another continent, South America. But he failed to find treasures or a strait to India. Last he visited Trinidad and the South American mainland before returning. Where the colonists had staged a bloody revolt against his brother’s mismanagement and cruelty. The atmosphere was so bad that Spanish authorities had to send a new governor to take over the charge. At that time Christopher Columbus was arrested and returned to Spain in chains.
Fourth voyage (1502- 1504)
This was Columbus’s final voyage, which he started on May 9, 1502. Although he was not well at that time, he led the expedition. Christopher Columbus believed that his voyages were divinely inspired. He did not get an entry in Hispaniola. Then he sailed south to explore Jamaica, southern Cuba, Honduras, the Mosquito Coast of Nicaragua, and parts of Panama. Where he abandons 2 of his 4 ships after damage from storms and hostile natives. After that, he returned to Spain empty-handed on November 7, 1504. At that time queen, Isabella was dying. And now Columbus could not make another Atlantic voyage.
Christopher Columbus was died in Valladolid, Spain, on May 20, 1506. He has died as an unsatisfied man.
Christopher Columbus discovered the principle of compass variation. He had absolute faith in his navigational abilities and his sense of the weather.
Christopher Columbus’s expectations allowed him to interpret his discoveries in terms of sources.
Legacy of Columbus
The 2nd Monday of October is celebrated as Columbus Day. This is a federal holiday in the U.S. This day is celebrated as the anniversary of Christopher’s 1492 landing in America. This was his discovery of the new world. On this day parades, pageants, and retail shopping bargains are held across the nation. Schools remain closed and government employees get the day off.
Columbus was the opener of the continent to slavery, can say that. He was the presenter of the legacy of slavery, genocide, rape, and plunder. We know that he was the 1st European slave trader in America. He sent many slaves across the Atlantic Ocean.
Columbus and his men were captured and enslaved the Arawak people almost as they landed. After that, some people sent to Spain, and others served Columbus on the Island.
Articles on Christopher Columbus’s said that in Hispaniola, Columbus and the Spanish set up a system that every Indian over the age of 14 will do the work of gathering a certain amount of gold every month. In return, they received copper tokens to hang around their necks if they succeeded. But if an Indian was found without a token, the Spanish cut their hands and leave them to death.
This type of murders and torture happens frequently because the Spanish wildly overestimated the gold that existed on Island. When it becomes clear that there was no more gold to take, the Spanish started plantation slavery. When Arawak tried to flee, they were hunted and killed. The Spanish sent hunting dogs to find them and to rip them apart. Many Arawak turned to suicide because of misery and desperation.
The colonizers brought many diseases. In America, many people died from smallpox, influenza, viral hepatitis, and many other illnesses.
When it becomes clear that Indians were dying out too fast, settlers turned to the transatlantic slave trade. Now they start making huge profits from African slaves. They were imported to provide labor to maintain colonies. After that plantation slavery spread throughout America. They provide agricultural production for the colonizers at a very low cost.
His journey going off centuries of exploration. In his life Columbus exchange and transferred people, animals, food, and disease across cultures. At that time old world wheat became an American food staple. And African coffee and Asian sugar cane became cash crops for Latin America. While American foods like corn, tomatoes, and potatoes were introduced into European diets after that.
Christopher Columbus has a Controversial legacy. The historical record has cast Columbus’s legacy under a cloud of controversy.